Terms and conditions

The corporate group JESÚS VICO comprises the companies JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L., JESÚS VICO S.A. and VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA S.L. (hereinafter GRUPO JESÚS VICO). Acceptance of the following terms and conditions shall be a condition of any transaction with such companies:


The General Terms and Conditions included in this document are applicable to all commercial transactions carried out at www.jesusvico.com, both through JESÚS VICO S.A. with Tax Identification Number (CIF) A-78169414 (numismatics) and VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA, S.L. with CIF B-85872851 (archaeology), whose owner is JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS, S.L., with CIF B88367990 (auctions) and registered office at C/Jorge Juan 83 28009 Madrid, province of Madrid, Spain.

For the purposes of this document, the contact telephone numbers are +34 915773065-+34 914318807 and the contact email address is info@jesusvico.com.


The rights related to industrial and intellectual property, including, but not limited to, trademarks, logos, texts, photographs, icons, images, graphic design, source code and other software elements included in www.jesusvico.com are owned by GRUPO JESÚS VICO. They are therefore protected by Spanish and international intellectual and industrial property laws.

Without the previous written authorization of GRUPO JESÚS VICO, it is not allowed to use, reproduce, transmit, manipulate, or make any use that exceeds a normal and necessary use when browsing the web page and using the services provided.

Access to the provided services does not entail on the part of GRUPO JESÚS VICO renunciation, transmission or total or partial cession of intellectual and industrial property rights, nor does it grant rights to use, alter, exploit, reproduce, distribute, or publicly communicate these contents without the previous and express written authorization of the respective holders of the above-mentioned rights. This is without prejudice to the right to view and obtain a private security copy of such content, provided that this right is exercised in good faith and that the intellectual and industrial property of the holder of these rights remains unchanged, and that it is used for non-commercial purposes and exclusively for the user's personal information.

The responsibility derived from the use of materials protected by the intellectual and industrial property rights contained in this page will be the sole responsibility of the user.


The GRUPO JESÚS VICO, through its website www.jesusvico.com, is dedicated to the sale and auction of numismatics and archaeology.


The GRUPO JESÚS VICO reserves the right to modify and update the archaeological objects, coins, prices and promotions, and other conditions included in www.jesusvico.com.

The GRUPO JESÚS VICO, within its means, tries to ensure that the information offered on the website is accurate and does not contain typographical errors. In the event of any typographical error beyond the knowledge of GRUPO JESÚS VICO, it shall be corrected immediately. Should a customer decide to make a purchase based on an error of this type, the GRUPO JESÚS VICO will inform them immediately of the error, and both parties will be able to rescind the purchase at no cost, provided the existence of the error is justified.


Regardless of the available translations of this section of the General Terms and Conditions of Sale, the official language of the contract shall always be the Spanish version.

The duration of the contract includes all the stages between the initial order request and its effective delivery by either JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L., JESÚS VICO S.A. or VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA S.L. and the full payment of the agreed price by the customer.

In accordance with Art. 1263 of the Spanish Civil Code, non-emancipated minors and incapacitated individuals cannot enter into distance sales contracts without the express consent of their parents or guardians.

By accepting these General Conditions of Sale, the customer declares to be of legal age (at least 18 years old) and to have the legal capacity to purchase the archaeological and numismatic objects available on www.jesusvico.com. They also affirm that they understand the general conditions in their entirety.


In addition to the rights described here, in their capacity as a purchaser, the Customer of our website is entitled to all legal rights under Spanish and European legislation relating to the sale of archaeology and coins. These legal rights can never be affected by these 'General Terms and Conditions of Sale'.

In the event of a defective product, in accordance with current legislation, the seller must proceed, as may be appropriate, to repair, replace, reduce the price, or terminate the contract. All of these will be free of charge for the consumer and user. The seller is liable for any lack of conformity that may become apparent within two years of delivery. The consumer and user must inform the seller of the lack of conformity within two months of becoming aware of it.

We have a professional team that handles all doubts and inquiries of our customers, taking care of any incidents.


Although it is our commitment to maximise the accuracy of any information regarding the characteristics, descriptions and images of our published products, the GRUPO JESÚS VICO does not expressly guarantee the total accuracy, reliability, or completeness of such information. Occasionally, it may be altered by differences in the settings of different types of browsers used to access our website.

In any case, should the Customer consider that the product purchased does not correspond exactly to the product shown in the website catalogues, they may return it according to the terms and conditions described here (see section 'Returns and cancellations') without being able to claim any other concept of damages.


The GRUPO JESÚS VICO accepts payment in cash, cash on delivery, payment by bank transfer, payment by credit/debit card and payment via Paypal (additional 2.9%). Please note that in the case of cash on delivery there will be an additional charge of 3.5 euros per order.

JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L., JESÚS VICO, S.A. or VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA S.L., depending on the nature of the transaction carried out, shall be responsible for any transaction with payment cards through this payment gateway.


www.jesusvico.com uses industry-accepted information security techniques such as firewalls, access control procedures and cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorised access to data. To this end, the user/customer agrees that the provider may collect data for the purpose of authentication of access controls.

In any contracting process involving the entry of personal data, such data shall always be transmitted through a secure communication protocol (HTTPS://) in such a way that no third party has access to the information transmitted electronically.


 The GRUPO JESÚS VICO undertakes to deliver the items purchased by the User to the address indicated by the User in the order form. In the event of omission or error in filling out this data, the GRUPO JESÚS VICO will not be held responsible for any inconvenience caused and the costs of re-delivery derived will be borne by the User.

Shipments will be made within Spain, Europe, and the rest of the world through a courier company, by post or delivered directly to the offices of the entity. The GRUPO JESÚS VICO reserves the right to change the type of shipment and the company through which it is made, regardless of what is stated here, as long as it does not imply a manifest detriment to the User.

The order placed by the User will be delivered to the destination within a maximum period of five (5) working days in Spain. For destinations outside Spain, it will be subject to an export license (3-6 weeks) from the payment of the purchase, except for orders paid by bank transfer, in which case the period will be computed from the email confirmation of the receipt of payment in the bank account of any of the three companies that make up the GRUPO JESÚS VICO.

We shall remain responsible for the items until receipt of the shipment by the customer unless the customer expressly chooses a different shipment method. In such a case, our responsibility shall end at the time of collection of the shipment from our offices.

In the event of force majeure not allowing delivery of the order within the established period, JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L., JESÚS VICO S.A. and VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA S.L. will inform the User as soon as possible of the new estimated delivery date, in which case they will be released from the commitment stated in the previous section.

If the courier or postal company is unable to deliver the shipment due to the absence of a person to receive it at the indicated destination, the courier or postal company will provide instructions to the User to arrange a new delivery date.

Upon receipt, the User must verify that the order matches the quantity and type of product ordered. In the event of any discrepancy, the User must follow the indications in section 8 of these Conditions.

Depending on the delivery method selected by the customer, there will be shipping costs added to the final purchase price. However, the Customer shall always be informed of the corresponding shipping costs before confirming the order. The acceptance of the 'General Terms and Conditions of Sale' by the customer always implies acceptance of the shipping costs by the customer.

The shipping costs applied are as follows:

-        Mainland Spain and Balearic Islands: min. 5,50 € –  max. 40 €

-        Canary Islands, Ceuta, and Melilla: min. 5,50 € –  max. 40 €

-        For other destinations: min. 12,50 € – max. 100€

-        Please request prices for archaeological items and books.


Right of Withdrawal

In accordance with current regulations on distance purchases, the Customer shall have a period of 14 natural days from the date of delivery of the items to return them if, for any reason, they are not satisfied with their order (in accordance with articles 68-79 of the Spanish Royal Legislative Decree 1/2007, of 16 November, whereby the revised text of the Spanish General Law for the Defence of Consumers and Users and other complementary laws is approved). To exercise the right of withdrawal from the purchase, all returned products must be in perfect condition and with their original packaging. Otherwise, the goods may be subject to depreciation.

To exercise your right of withdrawal, the customer can contact us using the contact details provided in the 'Cancellation of Purchases' section. Likewise, they may also exercise their right of withdrawal by sending the following form by e-mail (jesusvico@jesusvico.com) or fax (+34 914 310 104):  

To (name of the company): …………………………………………..

User/Customer Name:...............................................................

Order Number.:.........................................................................................

Date of receipt of order: ....................... of …………… of 20….

Consumer’s Address:………………………………………………..

Consumer’s Phone (optional):…………………………………..

Consumer’s Email Address (optional): …………………………………..

Postal Code: …………………………

City: ……………………………………………………………………

Country: ………………………………………………………………

On ……………………,. the …………. of …………… of 20…….


Signature (only if submitted on paper):

Please note that if you exercise your right of withdrawal, the return shipping costs will be at your expense. However, these costs will never be different from the shipping costs of the initial order.º


The refund period is 14 natural days from the notification of withdrawal. However, the refund will only be made once the items have been received and it has been verified that the User has not performed any manipulation other than that necessary to establish the nature and characteristics of the items.

Refunds will be made through the same payment method used for the purchase and in the shortest possible time from the receipt and approval of the withdrawal request by GRUPO JESÚS VICO.

Cancellation of Purchase

The User may cancel the purchase process as long as the purchase has not been fully processed. To ensure the cancellation, the customer is advised to contact GRUPO JESÚS VICO immediately by e-mail at info@jesusvico.com or by telephone at +34 915773065.


General Information

In compliance with current Spanish legislation on Personal Data Protection, we hereby inform you that your personal data will be processed by JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L., JESÚS VICO S.A. and VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA S.L. in their capacity as data controllers for the purpose of administrative, commercial and fiscal management of orders placed through auctions or our online store, as well as for commercial actions derived from the management of our customers.

We inform you that, in compliance with current legislation on the protection of personal data, your data will be communicated to courier companies and other transport companies that will carry out the home delivery service on our behalf. Likewise, our hosting and maintenance providers for our online store may potentially have access to your data. Our company will take all necessary measures to ensure that our suppliers comply with the applicable data protection regulations regarding the data of our customers.

We also inform you that, unless legally obliged to do so or with your express consent, the companies that make up the JESÚS VICO GROUP will not transfer your data to third parties other than those specified here, where applicable.

You have the right to obtain confirmation as to whether GRUPO JESÚS VICO is processing your personal data, and therefore, you have the right to access your personal data, correct inaccurate data or request its deletion when the data is no longer necessary, as well as to exercise the other rights established by law in the manner explained in the additional information. You may exercise the aforementioned rights under the terms established in current legislation by contacting JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS, S.L., JESÚS VICO, S.A. or VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA, S.L. C/ Jorge Juan 83, tel.+34 915773065, e-mail: info@jesusvico.com. You can also request the same contact details and additional detailed information about our data protection policy.

Legal scope of use of customer e-mail addresses

 Customers, by registering as such and purchasing our products, will receive promotions and newsletters by email. This service is subject to the provisions of article 21.2 of Law 34/2002, on Information Society Services and Electronic Commerce, modified by Law 32/2003, of 3 November, Spanish General Telecommunications Law, which authorises the sending of commercial communications by electronic means when there is a previous contractual relationship and products or services similar to those contracted are advertised. However, all commercial communications sent by GRUPO JESÚS VICO companies will be clearly identifiable as such through the reference "advertising" at the beginning of the message and will identify each of the companies as the entity responsible for sending them. Each communication will provide a simple and free means for the recipient to unsubscribe from the email marketing communication system.


Commercial transactions conducted with JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L., JESÚS VICO S.A. and VICO GALERÍA DE ARQUEOLOGÍA S.L. are subject to Spanish legislation.

Laws applicable to the subject matter:

ü  Law 7/2017 of 2 November 2017 transposing into the Spanish legal system the Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 concerning the alternative resolution of consumer disputes.

ü  Law 3/2014, of 27 March, amending the revised text of the Spanish General Law for the Defence of Consumers and Users and other complementary laws, approved by Spanish Royal Legislative Decree 1/2007, of 16 November.

ü  Regulation (EU) No 524/2013 of the Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013.

ü  Spanish Royal Legislative Decree 1/2007, of 16 November, approving the revised text of the Spanish General Law for the Defence of Consumers and Users and other complementary laws.

ü  Law 34/2002, of 11 July, on Information Society Services and Electronic Commerce and Law 32/2003, of 3 November, Spanish General Telecommunications Law.

ü  Law 7/96, of 15 January, on the Regulation of Retail Trade (organic law 2/1996, of 15 January, Complementary to the Regulation of Retail Trade, Law 47/2002, of 19 December, reforming Law 7/1996 and Law 1/2010, of 1 March, reforming Law 7/1996).

ü  Law 7/1998 on General Conditions on Contracting.

ü  EU General Regulation 2016/679 on Protection of Personal Data and Free Movement of Data.

ü  Organic Law 3/2018 of 5 December on Protection of Personal Data and Guarantees of Digital Rights.

ü  All other applicable legal provisions.  

In the event of conflict or disagreement in the interpretation or application of these General Terms and Conditions of Contract, the Courts or Tribunals that examine the matter shall be those provided by the applicable jurisdiction regulation. Any dispute shall be submitted to the Courts and Tribunals of the city of Madrid.


Pursuant to Art. 14.1 of Regulation (EU) 524/2013, the European Commission provides an online dispute resolution platform that can be used in any case of disagreement, dispute, etc. between the consumer and our business. Access to this online dispute resolution platform is available at the following link:


The online dispute resolution platform is only available for consumers residing in the EU. For more information on the process, please refer to the following link:



By accepting these General Terms and Conditions of Sale, the Client grants their consent to the seller to provide them with all invoices deriving from transactions carried out and contracted through the use of this site in accordance with the rules for Electronic Invoicing in Spain.


Our auctions are conducted by JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L. Participation in them implies acceptance of the following conditions:

- We guarantee the authenticity of the pieces offered in this catalogue for a lifetime, unless otherwise stated.

- The purchaser shall pay 20% of the auction price to cover auction fees and VAT on these fees.

- In accordance with the Spanish Historical Heritage Law 16/85 of 25 June 1985, an export licence must be requested for pieces over 100 years old. If the purchaser is resident in a country outside the European Union, they must assume the corresponding export fee stipulated in that law: https://www.culturaydeporte.gob.es/cultura/patrimonio/exportacionimportacion/exp ortacion/tasas.html Likewise, it is the purchaser's responsibility to check the customs and exchange regulations in force in Spain. The organisers of the auction decline all responsibility for any consequences of non-compliance with these provisions.

- In face-to-face auctions, if the bidding is done live over the Internet, the buyer will pay an additional 1% of the hammer price. There will be no live bidding fee for online auctions.

- The lots will be awarded to the highest bidder, with preference being given in the event of a tie to the orders received first.

- All offers will be made in euros and without cents. The prices shown in the catalogue are minimum sale prices, and orders below these will not be accepted. Each participant in the auction is personally responsible for the bids made and the auctioneer shall not be liable for any errors in the bids.

- Bid increments shall be at the auctioneer's discretion but, unless prior notice to the contrary is given, the scale of increments shall be as follows:

    - Up to 200€: increase of 5€

    - From 200€ to 400€: increase of 10€

    - From 400€ to 500€: increase of 20€

    - From 500€ to 1000€: increase of 25€

    - From 1.000€ to 2.000€: increase of 50€

    - From 2.000€ to 4.000€: increase of 100€

    - From 2.000€ to 4.000€: increase of 100€

    - From 5.000€ to 10.000€: increase of 250€

    - From 10.000€ to 20.000€: increase of 500€

    - From 20.000€ to 40.000€: increase of 1.000€

    - From 40.000€ to 50.000€: increase of 2.000€

    - From 50.000€: increase of 2.500€

    - In the event that the items purchased are defective in any way not described in the catalogue (except for those belonging to the Spanish Royal Mint set lots or cartridges, for which no returns or complaints will be accepted), the purchaser may return them within a maximum period of 7 days from the date of receipt of the shipment. Discrepancies in the degree of conservation will not be a reason for return, except in case of error, as this company evaluates them with absolute rigour according to international criteria. Any returned item must be in the same condition as when it was delivered to the customer.

- Lots awarded to absentee buyers will be delivered to them in the agreed manner during the days following the auction. Shipping, insurance, and reimbursement costs shall be borne by the purchaser.

- The total cost of the lots must be paid within 10 days of receipt of the invoice.
- JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L. reserves the right to delay the auction due to force majeure, as well as to withdraw any lot.

- Participation in this auction implies acceptance of the rules described above, as well as being subject to the jurisdiction of the Courts and Tribunals of Madrid for all actions that may arise therefrom.


This is a public auction, directed by JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L. Participating implies the acceptance of the following conditions:

- We guarantee lifetime authenticity of the pieces offered in this catalogue, unless otherwise indicated.

- The buyer will be liable to pay 20% over the sale price in concept of auction rights, the VAT of these rights and, tax whatever his residence may be.

- In order to comply the Spanish Heritage Law 16/85, buyers should bear in mind that the export of objects over 100 years old require the issuance of an Export License by the Ministry of Culture, regardless of the country of destination. This process normally can take between 3 and 6 weeks.

- If the buyer lives in a non-EU country, the buyer is liable to pay an export tax, which will depend on the value of the item bought and that can be calculated in the following link: https://www.culturaydeporte.gob.es/cultura/patrimonio/exportacionimportacion/ exportacion/tasas.html Furthermore, the buyer will be responsible of the observance of current Spanish customs and foreign exchange provisions. The directors of the Auction disclaim any liability or responsibility arising from the non-compliance of the mentioned provisions.

- In room auctions if the bid is placed live through the internet, the buyer will pay 1% extra fee over the hammer price. In online auctions there will be no fee for live bidding.

- The lots will be sold to the highest bidder; in case of equality the preference will be given to orders first received.

- All the offers will be done in euro and with no cents. The prices marked in the catalogue for each lot, are the minimum sale prices. Bids for a lower price than the one marked, will not be accepted. Everyone who participates is responsible for the offers placed. The Auctioneer will not be responsible for mistakes in the offers.

- Increments in the bids will depend completely on the auctioneer although, except prior notice, the increments will be as follows:

    - Until 200€: increments of 5€

    - From 200€ to 400€: increments of 10€

    - From 400€ to 500€: increments of 20€

    - From 500€ to 1.000€: increments of 25€

    - From 1.000€ to 2.000€: increments of 50€

    - From 2.000€ to 4.000€: increments of 100€

    - From 4.000€ to 5.000€: increments of 200€

    - From 5.000€ to 10.000€: increments of 250€

    - From 10.000€ to 20.000€: increments of 500€

    - From 20.000€ to 40.000€: increments of 1.000€

    - From 40.000€ to 50.000€: increments of 2.000€

    - From 50.000€: increments of 2.500€

 - Should any piece have a flaw not described in the catalogue, the buyer will be able to return it in a maximum of 7 days, as from the day it was sent. The discrepancy in the degree of conservation will not be a reason for return, except error, as this firm evaluates the pieces with total rigor, following international criteria. Any returned piece must be in the same condition as it was delivered.

- The lots sold will be sent to absentees in the agreed manner, during the days following the auction sale. The postage and packing as well as the COD (cash on delivery) and insurance, will be paid by the buyer.

- The total amount due for the lots acquired must be paid 10 days after the date of the reception of the invoice.

- JESÚS VICO Y ASOCIADOS S.L. reserves the right to postpone the auction because of a force majeure cause, as well as to remove any lot. - The participation in this auction implies the acceptance of the rules above described, as well as to submit to all the actions which could derive from it, to the jurisdiction of the Courts and Tribunals of Madrid.


  • CASH: at our offices or by postal order.


1.       Banco Santander C/ Alcalá, 74. E-28009. MADRID.

                          Swift Code: BSCHESMM. IBAN: ES10 0049 1834 12 2810211019

2.       2. BBVA. Pº de Recoletos, 10. E-28001. MADRID.

Swift Code: BBVAESMM. IBAN: ES83 0182 2325 02 0204047359

3.       La Caixa. Avda. Felipe II, 18. E-28009. MADRID.

Swift Code: CAIXESBBXXX. IBAN: ES46 2100 2121 28 020060 5891


     VISA, MASTERCARD and 4B: plus a 1.0% service charge.





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ACIP:          VILLARONGA, L., BENAGES, J.: Ancient Coinage of the Iberian Peninsula, Barcelona, 2011.

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AULOCK:      VV. AA.: Syllogue Nummorum Graecorum: Sammlung Hans von Aulock, Berlin, 1957-1968.

BA:             BARRERA CORONADO, L.: Catálogo General de la Moneda Falsa Española, desde los RR.CC. a Juan Carlos I, Sevilla.

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BMC:           VV. AA., Catalogue of the Greek coins of the British Museum, London.

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COP:   VV. AA., Syllogue Nummorum Graecorum: Danish National Museum, Copenhagen, 1942-1977.

CRAW:           CRAWFORD, M.H., Roman Republic Coinage, Cambridge, 1974.

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ED:     VV.AA., Catálogo Especializado de Billetes de España, Ed. EDIFIL S.A., Madrid, 1979.

F:         FROCHOSO, R., Los Feluses de Al-Andalus, Córdoba, 2001.

FFC:    FERNÁNDEZ, J.; FERNÁNDEZ, M. y CALICÓ, X., Catálogo Monográfico de los Denarios de la República Romana, Madrid, 2002.

FO:     FORRER, L., Biographical Dictionary of Medallists, Londres, 1904.

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G:        PÉREZ GUERRA, J. M., Órdenes y Condecoraciones de España, 1800-1975, Zaragoza, 2000.

Gardner:    GARDNE, P., The coins of the Greek and Scythic kings of Bactria and India in the British Museum, Chicago, 1966.

GM:     GRIERSON-MAYS, Catalogue of late Roman Coins, Washington, 1992.

GN:     GNECCHI, F., I Medaglioni Romani, Milano, 1962.

GO:     GOMES, A., Moedas Portuguesas, Lisboa, 2003.

GRO:  GROWE, F.W., Coins of Mexico, Massachusetts, 1981.

HH:     HAZARD, H., The Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa, New York, 1952.

H:        HERRERA, A., Medallas de Proclamaciones y Juras, Madrid, 1982.

I:         ÁLVAREZ BURGOS, F., La Moneda Hispánica desde sus orígenes hasta el siglo V, Madrid, 2008.

III:      ÁLVAREZ BURGOS, F., Catálogo de la Moneda Medieval Castellano-Leonesa, Madrid, 1998.

IV:       CRUSAFONT i SABATER, M., Acuñaciones de la Corona Catalano-Aragonesa y de los Reinos de Aragón y Navarra, Madrid, 1992.

J:          JENKINS, G.K., Coins of Punic Sicily, Zürich, 1997.

JB:       BAJO MIGUÉLEZ, J. B., Variantes en las Acuñaciones del Reinado de Juan Carlos I. Madrid, 2002.

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MG:     MONTANER AMORÓS, J. y GARÍ, A., Billetes Municipales. Guerra Civil (1936-1939).

MEC I:            GRIERSON, P. y BLACKBURN, M., Medieval European Coinage. Vol. 1: The Early Middle Ages, Cambridge, 1986.

Metcalf:           METCALF, D. M., Coinage of the Crusades and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford, London, 1995.

MM:    MOZO MONROY, M., Enciclopedia de la Moneda Medieval Románica en los R. de León y Castilla, Madrid, 2017.

MO:    MORRISON, K.F., Carolingian Coinage. New York, 1967.

MPN:  RUIZ TRAPERO, M. y otros, Catálogo de la Colección de Medallas Españolas del Patrimonio Nacional. V. Vol. Madrid, 2003-12.

MIT:    MITCHINER, M., The Ancient & Classical World (600 b.C.-650 a.D.), London, 1978.

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PRC:    PRICE, M.J., The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus, London, 1991.

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PZ:      BOUTIN, S., Catalogue des Monnaies Grecque Antique de l´Ancienne Collection Pozzi, Reimpresión, 1979.

R:        LE RIDER, G., Le monnayage d’Argent et d’or de Phillipe II frappé en Macédoine de 359 á 294, Paris, 1977.

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SBB:    SEAR, D. R., Byzantine Coins & their Values, London 1974.

SBG:   SEAR, D.R., Greek Coins. Vol I-II, London, 1978 y 1979.

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SES:    SELLWOOD, D. y otros, An Introdution to Sasanian Coins, London, 1985.

SGI:    SEAR, D.R., Greek Imperial Coins, London, 1982.

SNG Kay.:      Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. Turkey I. The Muharren Kayham Collection, 2 vols., Istambul, 2002-2015.

Spahr: SPAHR, R., Le Monete Siciliane, dagli Aragonesi ai Borboni (1282-1836), Basel-Graz, 1982.

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SYD-I: SYDENHAM, E.A., The Coinage of the Roman Republic, London, 1952.

SYD-II:           SYDENHAM, E.A., A Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. London, 1926.

T:        TOMASINI, W.J., The Barbaric tremissis in Spain and Southern France. Anastaius to Leovigild, New York, 1964.

TH:     THOMPSON, M., The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens, New York, 1961.

V:        VIVES y ESCUDERO, A, Monedas de las Dinastías Arábigo-Españolas, Madrid, 1893.

VE:     VIVES y ESCUDERO, A, La Moneda Hispánica, Madrid, 1926.

VEC:   VECCHI, I., Italian Cast Coinage, London, 2013.

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VII:     VICO MONTEOLIVA, J. y PÉREZ-SEGARRA, F., La Peseta como Unidad Monetaria Nacional. Monedas y Billetes, Madrid, 1985.

VILL:  VILLARONGA, L., Monedes de Plata Emporitanes dels Sigles V-IV a.C., Barcelona, 1997.

Villena: VILLENA, E., 2004, El arte de la Medalla en la España ilustrada, Madrid.

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VIV:    VIVES y ESCUDERO, A., Medallas de la Casa de Borbón, Madrid,1916.

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